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1.1.1 ME 487 Vehicle Power Train Systems
Requirement of transmission system. Clutches: Fundamentals, types, principle of operation, construction of a typical automobile clutch, clutch friction materials, torque capacity and design aspects. Manuel Gearboxes and overdrives: Necessity for gearbox, five speed and synchromesh gearboxes, Gear synchronization and engagement, mechanical power flow, remote controlled gear selection and engagement mechanisms, splitter and range change gearboxes, overdrive consideration, setting gear ratio and performance characteristics in different speeds. Hydrodynamic fluid couplings: Hydrodynamic fluid couplings, principle of operation and construction, hydrodynamic coupling efficiency and torque capacity, performance characteristics, reduction of drag torques. Torque converters: principle of operation, performance characteristics, converter coupling, multistage torque converters, polyphase torque converters, overrun clutches. Semi- and fully automatic Transmission: Automatic transmission considerations, mechanical power flow, three- four- and five-speed automatic transmissions, Electronic and hydraulic control systems. Other drives such as electro-magnetic transmission, electric drive and hydrostatic drive, their principles of operation, advantages and limitations. Final Drive Transmission: Crownwheel and pinion arrangement, differential locks, double reduction axles, two-speed axles and central differential, four-wheel drive arrangement. Electro/hydraulic limited slip differential.
1.1.2 485 Design of Vehicle Structures
Layout: Layout of light and heavy motor vehicles , Types of chassis with reference to power plant locations and drives, various types of frames, Chassis member joints and appropriate fastening methods, constructional details and materials, testing of vehicle frames, design and loads acting on vehicle frames. Integral body design: design of mountings for engine, transmission and other accessories. Crashworthiness and its influence on vehicle design: Accident and injury analysis, vehicle impacts, general dynamics and crush characteristics, design of impact collapsible structures and its influence on safety. Vehicle body engineering: Types-saloons, vans, buses, limousines, sports cars, etc. Design for comfort accommodation: Ergonomics in the automotive industry, ergonomics methods and tools to promote occupant accommodation and comfort. Driver’s visibility analysis and design, safety equipment for cars. Vehicle Body Aerodynamics: Fundamentals of viscous air flow, aerodynamic lift control, vehicle body drag and reduction devices.
1.1.3 487 Vehicle Control, Suspension and Stability
Suspension and Tyres: Requirements. Spring mass frequency. Wheel hop, wheel wobble, wheel shimmy. Choice of suspension spring rate. Calculation of effective spring rate. Vehicle suspension in fore and apt directions. Ride characteristics of tyres, behaviour while cornering, power consumed by tyre, effect of driving and braking torque-Gough’s tyre characteristics.
Vehicle Handling: Oversteer, under steer, steady state concerning. Effect of braking, driving torques on steering. Effect of camber, transient effects in concerning. Directional Stability of vehicles. Stability of Vehicles: Load distribution. Calculation of tractive effort and reactions for different drives, Stability of a vehicle on a slope, on a curve and a banked road. Numerical Methods: Approximate methods for fundamental frequency, Dunker-Ley’s lower bound, Rayleigh’s upper bound-Holzer method for close-coupled systems and branched systems.
Vehicle Dynamic Systems Engineering
Steering: steering gearbox fundamentals design, power assisted steering, steering geometry (castor, camber, king pin inclination, Toe-in and toe-out) and wheel alignment, Conditions for true rolling motion of wheels during steering, steering linkages and layout. Suspension: Suspension geometry, body roll stability analysis, Various Types of suspensions (Spring, hydroelastic, hydropneumatic and hydrogas suspensions), absorber, various types of independent suspensions. Braking System: Classification of brakes, drum and disc brakes, theory of braking, mechanical and hydraulic brakes, servo brake, power assisted brakes, Anti-lock braking system. Wheels and Tyres: Functions of pneumatic tyres. The wheel structure, stud and nut fixtures. Major tyre components: tube, tyre valves, carcass, beads, side walls and tread. Merits and demerits of tubed and tubeless tyres. Properties of tyre: Tractive, braking and cornering, tyre materials, tyre thread design, vehicle steady state directional stability, tyre marking identification, tyre and rim selections. Wheel balancing.
1.1.4 ME 486 Maintenance and Management of Automobile
Management Training and Operations: Basic principles of supervising. Organization, time and people. Job instruction training, training devices and techniques. Driver and mechanic hiring. Driver checklist, Lists for driver and mechanic. Trip leasing. Vehicle operation and types of operation. Vehicle Maintenance: Scheduled and unscheduled maintenance Planning and scope. Evaluation of PMI program, Work scheduling, Overtime, Breakdown analysis, Control of repair backlogs, Cost of options, Replacement guide lines and trade-ins. Fault Diagnostic and Trouble Shooting. Vehicle Parts, Supply Management and Budget: Cost of inventory, Balancing inventory cost against downtime, Parts control, Bin tag systems. Time management, Time record keeping, Budget activity, Capital expenditures, Classification of vehicle expenses. Fleet management and data processing, Data processing systems- Software. Models – Computer controlling of fleet activity. Energy management. Scheduling and Fare Structure: Route planning, Scheduling of transport vehicles, Preparation of timetable, Costs, fare structure, methods of the fare collection, Preparation of fare table. Motor Vehicle Act: Schedules and sections, Importation and duties, Registration of motor vehicles, Inspection of vehicles, Licensing of drivers, Control of permit, Limits of speed, Ghana highway codes and traffic signs, vehicle insurance. Constructional regulations, Description of goods carrier, delivery van, tanker, tipper, Municipal, fire fighting and break down service vehicle. Automobile Industry: History and development of the automobile industry, market trends, current scenario in Ghanaian auto industry in comparison to some foreign auto industries, Auto ancillary industries, Role of the automobile industry in national growth.
1.1.5 ME 488 Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems
Electrical power and wiring: Electrical power system, wiring of petrol cars, diesel trucks and buses. Battery: Principles and construction of lead-acid and alkaline batteries, characteristics, rating capacity and efficiency of battery, Various Tests. Ignition Systems: Types, construction and working of battery coil and magneto systems. Types and construction of spark plugs, electronic ignition systems. Electronic Fuel Injection and Ignition Systems: Carburetor systems. Throttle body injection and multiport or point fuel injection. Fuel injection systems and Injection system controls. Advantages of electronic injection and control systems. Types of solid-state ignition systems and their working principles, contactless electronic ignition system, and electronic spark timing control. Digital Engine Control Systems and performance: Electronic control modules, Open and closed loop systems, engine cranking and warm-up control, Acceleration enrichment, Deceleration leaning, idle speed control and cruise control. Distributor engine control systems, and distributor less ignition-integrated engine control systems, exhaust emission control systems. Hybrid operation and performance. Electronic dashboard instruments: onboard diagnosis system, fuel guage, security and warning systems. Lighting Systems and Accessories: Insulated and earth return systems. Positive and negative earth systems, Detail of head and side lights, head light dazzling and preventive methods, trafficator, Electrical fuel pump, speedometer, fuel, oil and temperature gauges, Horn, wiper system. Electronic management of chassis system: Vehicle motion control. Automotive Electronics: Current trend in modern automobiles, open and closed loop systems, components for engine management. Sensors and Actuators: Basic sensor arrangement, types of sensors including Oxygen sensors, crank position sensors, fuel metering, /vehicle speed sensors, detonation sensor, air flow sensor, and altitude sensor. Throttle position sensors, solenoids, stepper motors and relays. Electronic safety mechanisms: automatic braking systems (ABS), Safety mechanisms including electronic seat belts and airbags, child protection systems.